How can you “catch” a change in the value of a table cell and perform a specific action? (as a trigger)
You can certainly create views and / or write code to click a button and have something happen if a change occurred
But theres nothing that does it for you while you sleep outside of polling with an automation platform like Integromat or Zapier or writing code against the API and polling.
If you go the automation route I would recommend Integromat
While pervasive events are not yet available in Airtable, if you sign up for this beta (it will provide access instantly BTW) you can use script actions to detect when a record appears in a view, take a scripted action, and that scripted action has the ability to remove the record from the view after performing a scripted process.
This is actually quite useful when building workflows and other event-based processes against table data.