There is no native way to automate this process without utilizing the API.
You’ll have to use either the Scripting Block, or else some external tool like Zapier or Integromat to utilize the API for syncing data from one base to the other.
If you are familiar with Zapier, for instance, you can set up Zapier to watch for new records in a table. When a new record is detected in the table, you can have Zapier create a new record in the target base (the one you want to duplicate into), populating that new record with data from the record that triggered the Zap. I think this is a relatively code-free solution.