Is there a way to create a checkbox grid similar to that of Google Forms?
No, but you can continue to use Google Forms, or you can switch over to JotForm, which is quite possibly the most advanced form builder on the planet — and it also has direct integration with Airtable.
Grid form with checkbox fields:
JotForm Airtable integration:
And if you don’t get enough customizability from JotForm’s built-in integration with Airtable, you can also use Zapier or Integromat to apply conditional logic to your form data before adding the data into Airtable.
I much prefer Integromat because it is significantly cheaper & more powerful than Zapier. (I am also an Integromat Partner, and the link contains my personal referral code.)
An alternate approach to collect the same data—assuming that users are only supposed to pick one checkbox from that grid—is to use a pair of single select fields: one for year, one for term.