While the information in the link above does not state it explicitly, I have tested this and found that it is not possible to do what you are wanting in Airtable’s current state. The user permissions are not granular to the level of a view.
No matter what level of permissions you set a collaborator to (Creator, Editor, Commenter, Read Only), that collaborator will be able to see everything in the base - even views that you make “Personal”. They can see it, but perhaps not edit it. If you do not want somebody to be able to see every single record and field in your base, then, simply put, you cannot have them as a collaborator in your base at any level. And if they are not a collaborator, you cannot have them check off tasks. Other solutions to achieve something similar may be available using external automation services and web-form services, but they will require work in setting up and additional subscription fees to those services.
This is an area that I know the Airtable team is looking at, as there is high demand for more granular user permissions:
But until Airtable decides that they can implement something like collaboration at the level of only a single table, or only a single view, without it being an overwhelming burden on the software or on the ease of use of their product, what you are wanting to achieve is beyond the scope of Airtable
EDIT: Be sure to add your voice and explain your use case on this post - the more detail you can give them about why you want this and how you would use it, the better. And also “Like” the original post so Airtable sees the desire among the community for more granular user permissions growing in that way.
I have the exact same problem. I need to invite a collaborator to a table within a base only that is filtered and locked so they see only their records but view only doesn’t work. I need them to be able to edit.