Ad-hoc or on-the-fly filtering of the records shown in that listing isn’t possible, but you CAN control what’s shown there. Create a view in the linked table that filters records the way you want. Then back in the parent record, click the option Limit record selection to a view and select the filtered view.
I suggest, over in the linked record table, making a note in the description of the view to remind yourself that this view is used in that way (so you don’t delete it later by accident thinking it’s not important).
I’ve also done something similar with a separate table, having only 1 record in that table, that I link to all my records that I want filtered. In this case, the 1 record would link to the table feeding Items Contrato. Then, I set conditions that work for me, like records that meet a certain criteria. The downside to the method is you would need to set up an additional criteria, either a filter on/off switch or a time based criteria so your filter is only looking at the last modified record. I would attach screenshots but there would be a lot. If interested, I can walk you through it.
Yeah, sadly, as @WilliamPorterTech mentioned in his first post above, dynamic filtering of links is a gigantic missing feature from Airtable.
You can send an email to email@example.com to request this feature, but in all the years I’ve worked with Airtable, I have never seen them implement a single customer feature request unless it comes from one of their largest enterprise customers.
There is a workaround to do what you want to do, but it’s pretty complicated and it has several limitations: