Welcome to the community!
In Airtable, you can create a formula field that uses the DATETIME_PARSE function to yield the result that you want.
Afterwards, you can change that formula field to a normal date field, and it will retain the data while giving you the date formatting that you’re looking for.
The DATETIME_PARSE function will only work if you are applying it to a text string that only has date information in it, such as what you posted in your initial post above: Mon, 11 May 2020 14:31:44 -0500
If you have a single “long text field” with a ton of data dumped into it that goes above & beyond the date information, it’s not going to work. You have to pull out the date separately first.