That’s interesting question. Such topic, or ‘close to it’ already discussed here, several times. No “standard solution”, each data type better matched with different approach. Try to search Levenshtein (Levenstein) to find the disscussion.
Airtable has Deduper extension which lets you to find fuzzy matches. But it designed to find duplicates and then allow you to merge records, choosing field to stay or delete. It’s not so helpful for hundreds of matches, and for linking them.
In my scripts, I have solution that can compare names from different sources, ignoring case mismatch and different words order, third names and punctuation marks. Solution can choose among different values in table and choose the “closest” to given. Comparing values in tables, script can set links, including multi-linking and worksquite fast with a 50k+ tables.
Problem is that is three different scripts, written for different purpose, and I don’t think they can be combined.
thanks for the clue with Excel - now I interested how that’s formula works.