As far as I am aware there is no way to share the record URL with out at least allowing access to all fields on said record.
One way you can approach this is by setting up a record review interface that only displays the fields you are interested in sharing. You can then prefill the interface URL with the record id of that record, and your recipient will be dropped directly in that record. The only drawback with this is that your all recipients must have access to your interface or Airtable base.
To prefill the formula, you will want to take the URL in your interface and at the end there should be "=recolXhkaiosa", what comes after the = is what will need to be replaced with recordID of the record you are interested in.
If you recipients do not have access to your Airtable set up, I would recommend setting up an email automation that summarizes the fields of the record you are interested in sharing. These automations allow you to insert the record as a List or Grid and chose which fields from that record to share.
I hope this helps!