Unfortunately, no. A possible solution is Interfaces. Interfaces are a little underwhelming at the moment (because they don’t do everything that the normal Airtable interface does), but if you want, you could create an interface because it lets you group fields together into their own unique groups, and then you can color the background of each group. Although Airtable will only give you 2 colors to choose from, though, but at least you will be able to distinguish different groups.
One workaround that some people use is to create divider columns using formula fields. This will not color the individual groups of columns but it can provide a visual grouping. For example, the following formula will create a column of colored dots.