I haven’t done anything like that myself, but one possible method would be to use the data to create a simple HTML document (a formula field could handle this) that creates the graph using SVG. A script could pass that HTML to an API like CloudConvert to turn it into an image, then attach the image to the document. This could all be driven via automation. CloudConvert does have a free account, but you may need a paid account depending on how frequently the graphs need to change.
If you’d like help exploring this process more deeply, message me directly.
That’s one way of doing it, though just to clarify, the final image would be static. It’s not possible to set it up to have the flyout behavior when you hover your mouse over the graph as that page demonstrates. That only works when it remains as an HTML document, and Airtable doesn’t support embedded HTML in tables. The process that I’m talking about will generate an image (probably PNG) added to an attachment field.
Style-wise, you could also use simple line and dot elements to get something similar to your initial example.