Does the API perform an automatic sync before querying records?

My assumption is that it does not. How can a person ensure that an API query is retrieving the most recent data? Is it possible to trigger Airtable Sync via API?

Sounds like you’re referring to getting information from a table that is a destination table for a sync? As far as I know, there is no way to trigger the sync programmatically, so your best bet would be to get the information from the source table instead of the destination table.