Yes, you should be able to do any kind of scraping or analysis and then utilize the Airtable API to write the records into Airtable (as the final step in your app/script). The cool part is that Airtable generates API docs for each of your existing bases, by selecting your base from here: REST API - Airtable
Far easier to utilize the Airtable SDK and script features. You don’t need Node (because Airtable has Node), and you don’t need an external process (because Airtable supports this type of stuff internally). Works with automation script, script extensions and custom apps, and the SDK makes it far easier to capture and store your scraped results into Airtable records/fields.
CAUTION: Scaping Google search results is a ToS violation, so I advise anyone doing this to do it right and above-board using a Google search API or any third party that can abstract your work away from a potential ToS violation.