Adam from Airtable support here.
Right now, Airtable’s Google Drive integration doesn’t work with (Team) Shared Drives, only personal drives. Google Team Drives are shared across a team and not owned by an individual such as My Drive.
I can see how useful it would be to have access to Team Drives and our product and engineering teams are aware of this current limitation. You can stay on top of Airtable product changes from our What’s New Page.