Unfortunately, Airtable is a relatively low-security platform, so it does not provide any security in these regards.
All collaborators (even read-only collaborators) can download all of the data in your base, and all collaborators (even read-only collaborators) can make a personal/private copy of your entire base as well. Furthermore, Airtable will never alert you when your collaborators perform either of these actions.
There aren’t too many options to workaround this. One option is to create a share link for a view, which provides read-only access to that particular view. Another option is to create a portal using a portal tool like MiniExtensions.com, which also allows for editing of the data.