Not currently. Those are lumped together under one permission option. You could add a suggestion to the Product Suggestions category. In the meantime, drill the “don’t delete stuff without asking first” concept into your collaborators’ heads. (Frankly I don’t understand why that’s such a hard thing for people to understand, but apparently it is or you wouldn’t be asking this question.)
The typical approach is to provide read-only access to the data, then provide a form for users to create/update a record and use zapier to perform that update. Either by using the default airtable forms or using an external solution like nanoform or jotform to perform updates.
While that option works for new records, the OP was asking about editing records. As you mentioned, @openside, there are many workarounds that involve 3rd party apps, but a more granular permission control in house would be ideal. It almost seems like the permissions were put in long before the focus on collaboration was put in. The more collaborators you have, the more finite the permission groups you need.